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Why is Water the Most Important Substance?
최민준 강남포스트 학생기자 | 승인 2023.05.03 14:06

Water consists of about 70% of our body and the Earth, and we must hydrate ourselves to survive constantly. Water is an essential component of our life, yet we might wonder what makes water unique. This article will explain why water is so efficient in supporting life forms. 

A polar covalent bond forms water molecules: polar means that the molecules gain an electric charge, and a covalent bond is a type of chemical bonding that involves the sharing of electrons. Oxygen molecules have great electronegativity, meaning they firmly pull the shared electrons to their side. As electrons possess a negative charge, the oxygen molecule, which pulls electrons closer to its side, gains a partially negative charge. 

 

 

The hydrogen molecules with electrons pulled from them gain a partially positive charge. This property of water allows hydrogen bonds to form between water molecules, as the hydrogen atoms in the water are attracted to the oxygen atoms, as opposite charges attract each other, bonding water molecules together.

Due to the hydrogen bonds between water molecules, water gains solid and cohesive properties, which is a property that allows water to be transported against gravity in plants. Water also has a high specific heat capacity (challenging to change temperature), as heat energy is used up to break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules; this means the temperature of the ocean would not fluctuate much, providing a stable environment for animals to thrive, as well as making organisms (which are mainly consisted of water) more resistant to temperature changes. 

Lastly, waters are excellent solvents as when a polar substance (substance where individual molecules have charge), the hydrogens or oxygens will attract to them, separating them and allowing various substances to dissolve in the bloodstream, supporting a life form.  

 

 

 

 

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